Glossary of Industry and Related Terms

Industry Terms | Earth-Friendly Terms | Apparel Terms | Screen Printing Terms

Industry Terms

Written notice that an order has been received
Any non-typeset drawing, photo, illustration, or lettering.
When an illustration runs all the way to the edges of the page or sheet after its trimmed
Color Separation
The separation of multicolored original art by camera or laser-scan techniques to product individual separated colors. There are four common separations: yellow, magenta, cyan, and black.
The depression of an image into a material such as paper, leather or suede, so the image sits below the product surface.
Decal Transfer
An imprinting method in which the decal is printed on an offset or letterset press, submerged in water and placed on a product. Excess water and air is squeegeed off and the product is kiln-fired. The process fuses the decal with the glaze.
A mold into which molten metal, plastic, or other material is forced to make a specific shape. Or, a tool of very hard material used to press a particular shape into or onto a softer material. Also a plank of metal that is etched to produce a relief used for hot stamping.
Die Casting
A process where molten metal is injected into the cavity of a carved die.
Die Charge
A charge for creating a die from artwork.
Die Stamp
A steel plate engraved with the desired image, generally used to apply a gold or silver imprint.
Die Striking
A method of producing emblems and other flat specialties. A blank, cut from a metal sheet, is struck with a hammer that holds the die.
The raising of an image on a product, accomplished by pressing the material between concave and convex dies.
A design stitched onto fabric through the use of high-speed, computer-controlled sewing machines.
Cutting an image into metal, wood, or glass by one of three methods: computerized engraving, hand tracing, or hand engraving.
Used to describe a complete type-set of a particular size from a particular typeface.
Four-Color Process
A printing process that creates color productions by overprinting screens that individually print CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) in variable specified intensities.
Heat-Transfer Printing (Direct Transfer Process)
An imprinting method in which an image is screened onto a transfer substrate, which is then laid directly on the material to be imprinted. The image is transferred from the substrate to the material through heat and pressure.
Heat-Transfer Printing (Sublimation)
The process in which a design is transferred to a synthetic fabric by heat and pressure. The heat causes the inks to turn into a gas so that they penetrate the fabric and combine with it to form a permanent imprint. Also called plastocal transfer.
Hot Stamping
A dry imprinting process in which a design or type is set on a relief die that is subsequently impressed with heat and pressure onto the printing surface.
In type, letterforms that slope to the right.
Laser Engraving
An imprinting method by which art or lettering is cut into a material by a laser beam that vaporizes the portion exposed to the laser beam.
A firm's registered symbol, outline drawing, picture, brand, abbreviation, or unusual typestyle of letter, word or brand name used in identifying and advertising.
The number of pieces that were printed in excess of the quantity specified/the production run of fewer pieces than the amount specified. The industry standard on most products is +5%, with the exception of being on paper and plastic bags. They can range from +10 to +25%.
Pantone Matching System (PMS)
A color scale used to precisely match colors for printing. Each hue has a coded number indicating instructions for mixing inks to achieve that hue.
To imprint the recipient's name on a particular product.
Production Ready Art
Any drawing, photo, illustration or lettering suitable for photographic reproduction.
Pro Forma Invoice
An invoice issued as a matter of record and sent to the customer prior to the shipment of products to confirm the specifications.
An impression of type or artwork on paper to allow the correctness and quality of the material to be checked.
Puff Prints
A screening process using puff inks. After screening, the product is exposed to heat. A chemical additive in the ink causes it to rise, creating a raised surface.
The density of dots for any given output device. The unit of measurement is dots per inch (dpi)
The mirror-like inversion of elements on a printing plate in relation to their order on the surface printed from it.
San Serif Type
A typestyle without cross strokes at the end of the main strokes.
Screen Charge
A charge for creating a screen of the artwork used for imprinting products.
Screen Printing
An imprinting method in which the image is transferred to the printed surface by ink squeegeed through a stenciled screen stretched over a frame. Screens are treated with a light sensitive emulsion, then film positives are put in contact with the screens and exposed to light. The light hardens the emulsion not covered by the film, leaving a soft area on the screen for the squeegee to force in through. Also called silk-screening.
Setup Charge
Special charges added to certain products in a catalog. It covers the cost of preparing the type for the press and the actual printing.
A printed area without type or other illustrations.
Spot Color
Color used usually for accent.
Use of the same image printed continuously in a pattern on the same sheet of paper.
Transparent Ink
Printing ink that does not completely conceal the color of the carrying material beneath.
A general term used to describe the styles of lettering available in typesetting.
To create type of a quality usable for reproduction, whether electronically or mechanically.
Visual effect of the thickness or thinness of text, rules or logos.
White Space
Space on a page not occupied by type, pictures or other elements.

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Earth-Friendly Terms

A "biodegradable" product has the ability to break down, safely and relatively quickly, by biological means, into the raw materials of nature and disappear into the environment.
Corn Plastic
Traditionally, plastic products have been manufactured utilizing a petroleum-based material. Corn plastic is an all-natural plastic that not only helps relieve U.S. dependence on foreign energy, but is based on a renewable U.S. agricultural product.
Intended or perceived to have no harmful effect on the natural environment and its inhabitants.
Not altered, treated, or disguised: natural coloring; natural produce.
Recycled Material
Recycling is the reprocessing of materials into new products. By recycling, you save natural resources, energy, and the environment.
Reuse materials and objects already manufactured, either for original or new purposes, rather than recycle them into other products. To reuse decreases energy and materials used in recreating them into a new form.
Organic Products
Products that are grown in the soil that are free from pesticides, herbicides and other cytotoxins. Products that are made with organic cotton, organic soybeans, organic hemp, organic herbs, bamboo, to name a few.
Solar Powered Products
Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the Sun. Many technologies have been developed to make use of solar radiation. Some of these technologies make direct use of the solar energy (e.g. to provide light, heat, etc.), while others produce electricity. Solar power is pollution free during use.

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Apparel Terms

Specialty Threads
Threads designed for effects such as shine, glitter, iridescence, or thickness. The threads often are made from synthetic materials including rayon, mercerized cotton, metallics, and textured nylon.
Stitches per inch: System for measuring density or the amount of satin stitches in an inch of embroidery.
Fine cord of natural or synthetic twisted fiber used for stitching. Machine embroidery threads come in rayon (high sheen), cotton (duller finish), polyester (strong and colorfast), metallics (synthetic core wrapped with metal foil or thin slivers of metal foil), and acrylic (sheen similar to rayon).
Operation in the finishing process that involves trimming the reverse and top sides of the embroidery, including jump stitches and backing.

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Screen Printing Terms

The migration of ink, pigment or dye into unwanted areas. Typically occurs when one ink spreads or mixes with another ink, forming an unwanted third color. Also can occur during high-temperature curing where a low-opacity ink is placed on a dark poly/cotton garment - red or black, for example. Also know as color migration.

Metallic Ink
Powdered metals, such as aluminum and bronze, processed with ink to give the appearance of gold or silver. Has a smooth finish.

Process Colors
Primary printing colors of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) that are printed one over another to produce different hues in a multicolor print. The inks used are transparent, exhibiting very low opacity. Requires color separations. See "Four-color process".

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